In Eric Grissell's book, Bees, Wasps, and Ants: The Indispensable Role of Hymenoptera in Gardens he laments that people who are interested in gardening for wildlife invariably choose to encourage butterflies or birds. With all the press about the honey bees suffering from colony collapse disorder, however, there seems to be an upswing in interest in gardening for pollinators. Although the term pollinator does encompass butterflies and birds, bees are generally included as well. In fact, a group in Texas has a new certification program for "bee-friendly gardens."
What do you need to provide to encourage bees in the garden? Most wildlife gardens concentrate on three areas : food, water and shelter.
1. Food - Planting Flowers for Bees
Bees collect pollen and nectar for food, which is why they are great pollinators. Planting an array of flowers to bloom throughout the growing season is a good start for providing nectar and pollen they need. Sunflowers are a good choice because they will grow in a wide variety of areas and attract a number of different kinds of bees.
The types of flowers to provide will depend on your local growing conditions. Check with local botanical gardens, nurseries, beekeeping associations, and native plant societies for recommendations. Don't forget that trees may produce significant nectar and pollen for bees (particularly early in the season), even though they may not have large, showy flowers.
If you plant trees and other flowering plants that supply nectar for well-known bees, like honey bees,
often the lesser-known, but still important solitary bees will also use them.
Sometimes all you need to do is leave the wildflowers you already have.
For example, the humble dandelion tends to flower late into fall and even winter, providing an important late season resource for bees.
In addition to nectar and pollen, bees may also gather a number of different materials from leaves, including nesting components, resin or sap.
2. Providing water for bees
Bees need water to drink. These honey bees are standing on lily pad leaves floating in a pool and drinking the water at the edges. They will use various damp puddles or places where they can walk to edge of the water as water sources. In his book, Eric Grissell shows a simple solar-powered fountain he devised to splash water on rocks. Properly designed and maintained, a water fountain or pool can be a source of a drink for many types of animals.
3. Providing shelter for bees
Providing shelter for bees does not have to be difficult and can even be artistic. Sometimes it may be as simple as leaving a few flower stalks in your garden. For example, our hollyhock stems provide an ideal home for small species of carpenter bees (Genus Ceratina).
Mason bee houses are very popular with both humans and bees, as we see with this video of an European species they have identified as red orchard mason bees (Osmia rufa) colonizing a new bee condo. Listen to them "talk!"
In Tucson, Arizona we have an artist and landscape designer, Greg Corman at Zen Industrial, who does bee habitats that double as sculptures. Some of his bee and lizard habitats are on display at the Arizona Sonoran Desert Museum.
(Robert Engelhardt made this solitary bee house. Photograph from Wikimedia).
A quick search with Google can yield many places to learn more about bee houses or condos:
- The Pollinator Garden has extensive, detailed instructions for a number of different "bee hotels."
- Studio G Blog has photographs of awesome "bee walls", and includes several of the Zen Industrial designs
- If you don't want to make your own, there are Mason bee condos for sale
- Gardener's has a beneficial insect house for bees, lady bugs, and butterflies. Wonder how they all get along
Another way to provide a place to live is to leave a patch of bare ground for digger bees to nest. You will need to research the requirements for your area, but leaving a small patch of native soil undisturbed may be helpful.
4. Get to know your local bees
To have a successful pollinator garden, it really pays to get to know what kind of solitary bees live in your area and what their requirements are. The more you know about the tiny bees that share you yard, the better you will be able to meet their needs and the more you will appreciate them.
Now, those of you who have been following my blog will probably know where I'm going next. Yes, I'm talking about gardening for ants. Do you think it is possible to garden for ants? Stay tuned...