Featured Myrmecologist: Dr. Kaitlin M. Baudier

Today we’re featuring Kaitlin M. Baudier, PhD who is currently a post doc in the Social Insect Research Group at Arizona State University.

Dr. Baudier is the creative force behind the AntGirl YouTube Channel. Check it out, particularly the ant playlist.

To give you an idea of her content, here’s her video of a Pogonomyrmex barbatus mating swarm.

Isn’t that incredible? Being close to a social insect swarm is an amazing experience. I hope to see a full blown harvester ant mating swarm like this one some day.

What else does she work on?

Besides social insect swarm aggression research, she also studies tropical ecology and animal behavior. She has some great videos of tropical species, like the ants versus stingless bees.

Ever seen those odd tubercles on ponerine larvae?  (If not, the Mississippi Entomological Museum has a close up of an Ponera pensylvanica larva here.) Dr. Baudier is also interested in studying their evolution throughout the subfamily ‎Ponerinae. Take a look at her poster about “sticky fingers.”

If you’d like to learn more, visit her website.

Did I mention she’s also an artist?

Question About Ants Crossing Marker Lines

You’ve probably seen the videos of people drawing circles around an ant and the ant seeming to refuse to cross the line, like this one:

Recently this question came in:

My son wants to do a science project related to a video he saw about ants not crossing a marker boundary. We assume this has to do with pheromones or rather chemicals in the markers. We have tried to find research related to this, however very little has been found by him. Wondering if you know of any research about this?

Before going into the question, first let’s make sure we are clear about terminology. A pheromone is a chemical scent that animals use to communicate with other members of their species. (You can see more about ant pheromones in this previous post.) An ant repellent, on the other hand, is any chemical that keeps ants away. They are not, however, mutually exclusive. It is possible for a pheromone to repel other members of the colony, for example virgin queen honey bees produce a pheromone that tells worker honey bees to back off.

Returning to the marker problem, what could be going on?

It could be the chemicals in the marker act as an ant repellent. The ant is repelled by the line and refuses to cross it. It makes sense that ants respond to any novel or harmful chemicals by backing away or avoiding them.  In a paper in Journal of Chromatography A, scientists found all sorts of chemical compounds in pen ink that ants might want to avoid, including methylbenzene and xylene.

Another possibility that the marker has wiped away the trail pheromone trail that told the ant where to go.

Foraging ants that find food mark the surface with chemicals as they return to the nest. As more ants pass back and forth, more and more pheromone builds up. Depending on the foraging strategies of the ants, some trails can be dense with worker ants. Similarly, when ants are moving from one nest to another, they will lay and follow a pheromone trail.

You can disrupt a pheromone trail with chalk or even with your finger.

The behavior looks pretty similar doesn’t it?

A third possibility is that it is a little bit of both: the marker wipes away the trail and also repels the ant.

Rather than give you all the answers, think about way you might be able to figure out which of the possibilities are likely and how to test for them. A hint: what happens if you draw a pen circle around an insect or spider that doesn’t have a pheromone trail? Do they act the same way?

For more help, check out Drawing Circles Around Ants and Go and Stop? Ant Traffic at the Science Buddies Website. (Always a great resource for science fair project ideas.)

Public domain image of army ants by Alex Wild.

Calling All Ant Bloggers

Do you blog about ants? Know someone else who does? Have a favorite ant-related blog you follow? Please let me know the details or add links in the comments below.

I’m going to be working on a guide to ant blogs over the next week. It will be published on another blog, and the links will be added to the list of websites, forums and blogs page here.

Also, if you are an ant researcher and have some interesting news to share any time throughout the year, let me know and I’ll pass it on to our facebook page.

Thank you!

Formica Pupae: Cocoons or Not?

Tipping over rocks can lead to interesting discoveries.

On a recent trip to western New York, I tipped over a rock.

I found a colony of ants in the Formica fusca group. (They looked silvery, so possibly Formica subsericea, but my eyes are getting older.)

The worker ants scurried to remove the brood to safety.

Something else caught my attention. Do you see it?

Maybe it will be clearer here. Notice the workers are rushing to hide the pupae.

The cocoon on the left is probably a reproductive pupa (queen or male). It is larger than the workers and the cocoon is made of darker, coarser silk.

The cocoons on the right are worker pupae. They are the same size or smaller than the workers and made of lighter silk.

What’s up with the white, naked pupa in the center?

It is the size of a worker. Conventional wisdom says whether or not a larva spins a cocoon before pupating is species specific. Why doesn’t this one have a cocoon like the others?

Some suggestions:

1. Wallis (1960) and others have proposed that Formica fusca larvae must be covered with bits of debris before they can spin a cocoon. Perhaps this one wasn’t buried properly and failed to spin?

2. Perhaps it isn’t a Formica fusca pupa.

Colonies in the Formica fusca group are frequently parasitized or enslaved by other species. This video shows a mixed colony of Formica sanguinea and Formica fusca with a bare pupa.

I didn’t see any evidence of Formica sanguinea workers in the colony I photographed, though.

Have you ever seen Formica pupae without cocoons? If so, why don’t they all have cocoons? What might be the advantages and disadvantages of spinning a cocoon versus not?


I. Wallis, D. (1960). Spinning movements in the larvae of the ant, Formica fusca. Insectes Sociaux. 7: 187-199. 10.1007/BF02224080.

See previous post about Formica fusca group ants.